Date : 01st April 2020
Increasing awareness about the rising trend in the incidences of disastrous natural hazards and the costs of recoveries from disasters prompted the humanitarian system to modify its approaches and strategies for managing disaster (ISDR 2005). “The traditional view of disasters held that they were temporary interruptions of a linear development process that was leading to ever-improving standards of living”. “The task of humanitarian aid, therefore, was to patch things up so that the process of development could start up again. Emergency relief would be followed by rehabilitation, leading in turn to renewed development work (Twigg, J. 2004).” Although, the humanitarian system conventionally has been concerned solely with responding crisis and providing assistance to reduce distresses of the affected people and bringing back social functioning on the development trajectory, to ensure that the responses are effective, efficient and timely, it always included some preparedness activities. However, human and economic costs of disasters continue to rise. Compared to 1970s, the number of people affected in the 1990s was nearly three times greater and the economic losses were nearly five times higher in real terms (Twigg, J. 2004). Eventually, there has been “international acknowledgement that efforts to reduce disaster risks must be systematically integrated into policies, plans and programmes for sustainable development and poverty reduction, and supported through bilateral, regional and international cooperation, including partnerships”( ISDR, 2005).